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Well, this smart material is certainly beautiful; and a firm favourite at SFXC HQ. As a living protein, it is very sensitive to temperature changes. It is neither liquid nor solid, with the ability to transition through several states. Before heat is applied, Liquid Crystal is cloudy in colour. But once it has reached its activation temperature, its magically transforms through a rainbow of vibrant colours. Colour will indicate temperature levels within +/- 0.5 degrees or less.

The two most common types of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal (TLC):
Cholesteric; derived from esters of cholesterol
Chiral Nematic; derived from non sterol chemicals

Liquid Crystal has a Chiral (twisted) molecular structure. The layers are arranged like that of a solid in very organised, parallel layers. Yet at the same time, LC has the flowing properties of a liquid.

During manufacturing, Liquid Crystalline must be protected by microencapsulation, which helps to maintain its thermochromic properties. These capsules are mixed with polymers and other substances to create a stable and incredibly versatile product. This process produces an 'aqueous slurry'. As such, any carrier fluids used with TLCs must be aqueous. Essentially, TLCs are oils with a consistency between a thick paste and an oil.

liquid crystal ink The result is a gradient of stunning colours (in shades of red, green then blue) between the temperatures of 24°C and 29°C. Depending how white light is reflected with change what colours are visible. Brighter light means the colour will be more intense. When the temperature is below or above its activation level, it will appear colourless.

So, if you want a dramatic effect, a black background is your best bet. Either matt or shiny surfaces will work, since Liquid Crystal will stand out either way. Multiple layers will ensure greater colour intensity.

You are probably familiar with LCD, or Liquid Crystal Display, the standard display in nearly every electronic device: Computers...TVs…even digital watches incorporate this technology. For application, Liquid Crystal has numerous creative and commercial uses: Thermometer strips, batteries and thermal mapping are just a few goods which utilise this marvellous material. The medical industry uses LC thermometers for monitoring patient's temperatures.

At SFXC, we have three different types of Liquid Crystal products available:
An ink: best applied via screen printing
A sprayable coating
Vinyl sheets which can be easily cut 

Andy O'Rourke used our Liquid Crystal sheets to design his Snow Dog.

This clever material is the quintiessential tool for scientific education in schools and universities. If you are an educator looking to use this inspirational product with students, we offer small and large demonstration packs which include this inspirational material.


For application do not apply using a brush, as the resulting layer will be uneven and the thermal response will be affected. Thermochromic inks can be used on paper and board, but screen printing is best in terms of application method. Using a Liquid Crystal coating to screen print t-shirts is a simple way of achieving incredible results.
liquid crystal sprayable

As screen printing can be used on such a versatile array of materials, LC can also be applied to fabrics and other textile items.

Our sprayable product can be used with an airbrush or other such spray kits. Coverage is up to 35ml per sqm.  The preferred method of application is through spraying using an artist’s airbrush.

A TLC coating can be removed with acetone or a solvent. If grease or organic solvents come into contact with the LC, the resulting colours can be affected.

liquid crystal sheetLiquid Crystal is sure to enchant makers, creators and innovators, for many generations to come.

What experiments or inventions would you like to try with Liquid Crystal? Let us know in the comments below or reach out to us on social media!

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